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Photographic gallery.  Thousands of particles under the microscope.
Alnus rubra, Red Alder Radial Section Through the Microscope

Alnus rubra, Red Alder Radial Section

This is an image from a stained standard section of Alnus rubra, Red Alder, made by John P. Limbach of Ripon, Wisconsin. Note the scalariform perforations (ladder-like structures at the vessel terminations) and the intervessel pitting.

Transmitted Brightfield Illumination


KINGDOM: Plantae UNRANKED: Angiosperms UNRANKED: Eudicots UNRANKED: Rosids ORDER: Fagales FAMILY: Betulaceae GENUS: Alnus SPECIES: rubra

Significance in the Environment:

Characteristic Features:

Scalariform perforations at vessel terminations are a characteristic of Alnus rubra and many other North American hardwoods.

Associated Particles:


Core, H.R., W.A. Cote, and A.C. Day, WOOD STRUCTURE AND IDENTIFICATION, Syracuse Wood Science Series, Vol. 6, 1979.