This sample was collected in Western Washington State. it has not been acetalized.
Transmitted Oblique Off-Crossed Circular Polarized Light Illumination
Birch is a prolific pollenater in the early Spring.
Significance in the Environment:
Betula spp., Paper Birch, pollen is about 22 to 30 micrometers in diameter. It is triporate with a pore cavity formed
by a separtation between the endexine and ektexine. The surface of the grain is psilate.
Faegri, Knut and Johs Iversen, TEXTBOOK OF POLLEN ANALYSIS, Hafner Publishing Company, 1964.
Kapp, Ronald O., HOW TO KNOW POLLEN AND SPORES, Wm. C. Brown Company, 1969.
Moore, P.D., J. A. Webb, and M. E. Collinson, POLLEN ANALYSIS, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1991
Smith, E. Grant, SAMPLING AND IDENTIFYING ALLERGENIC POLLENS AND MOLDS, Blewstone Press, San Antonio, Texas, 1990