Transmitted Oblique Off Circular Polarized Light Illumination
Sword Fern, Polystichum munitum, is found in the Northwest forests of North America and inland along some river valleys.
Significance in the Environment
The spores and sporangia are released in the Spring.
Click here for images of over 15,000 pollens and spores.
Mickel, John T., 1979. HOW TO KNOW THE FERNS AND FERN ALLIES, Dubuque, Iowa. Wm. C. Brown.